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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. While high school performance and college aspirations were inversely associated with the of lifetime partners, their current level of educational attainment was not. Understanding risk and protective factors may help public health policy planners and health care professionals formulate a more effective ecologically based approach to mitigate sexual health risks and social repercussion related to dating for young women.

From the social aspect, this developmental life stage offers increased freedom that encompasses negotiation of different roles and experimental options, of which one has to do with sexual intimacy e. This study investigated social context of sexual involvement and of sexual partners among young women aged 18 and 19 in Michigan. First, while the empirical postulation that having unprotected sex with a greater of sexual partners increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections STI including exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus HIV is not new e.

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To clarify processes related to sexual involvement, research efforts on adolescents have largely focused on the influence of peers and family e. Similarly, findings related to sexual attitudes in emerging adult literature vary due to different conceptualization of study measurement. Overall, our knowledge of what shapes sexual behaviors in emerging adulthood, a critical life phase filled with opportunities and constraints, is somewhat limited.

Peers play a central role in shaping how young adults choose to express themselves sexually e. Empirical evidence suggested that the broader social norms embodied in negative peer pressure contribute or exacerbate susceptibility to engage in sexual risk-taking behaviors e. On the one hand, peer groups shape socialization that encourages identity exploration; on the other hand, they offer a source of support that helps facilitate the flow of information and influence sexual attitudes, sexual choices, use of contraceptives, or the decision to remain abstinent e.

Positive aspects of peer networks may be a source of social capital for emerging adults lacking the life experience and cognitive maturity in sexual decision making.

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For example, young adults may be more comfortable talking about sexual issues with their peers than their parents. Prinstein, Meade, and Cohen indicated that youths who are sexually active tend to believe their behaviors are normative activities among their peers and vice versa. Relatedly, using household structure as a proxy for parental involvement or presence of parental guardians, growing up in a single parent household has been linked to early onset of sexual intercourse and inconsistent contraceptive use, both of which are associated with greater lifetime sexual partner accumulation e.

Youths from households of higher socioeconomic status e. Although the institution of marriage has historically been deated as a formal union that legitimizes sexual acts, major social changes including the rise of cohabitation and widespread acceptance of premarital sex have dramatically altered the sexual attitudes and practices among the newer generations e. In Michigan, the median age for first marriage is approximately 26 years old. Approximately 2. Despite the fact that the legal marriage age is 18,or year-olds who intend to wed must secure parental or guardian consent State of Michigan, n.

Existing evidence suggested that high aspirations and attainment are among the most ificant predictors of future behavioral outcomes. Robbins and Bryanfor instance, pointed out that youths with positive future orientation are less likely to engage in risky behaviors, whereas low educational aspirations have been reported to be associated with a range of sexually risky behaviors including early onset of sexual initiation e. Existing research also noted an empirical connection between low grade point average GPA and likelihood of initiating sexual activity and engagement in risk-taking sexual behaviors e.

Research efforts that have focused on racial differences suggest that Woman seeking real sex Arnett Oklahoma and White adolescents may experience different sexual contexts. Some scholars have suggested that the rate discrepancies in sexual involvement may be attributable to contextual e. The social learning framework, for example, stresses the need to assess the normative climate one is embedded.

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Specifically, through contact and shared communication, individuals rely on the normative definitions, meanings, and expectations attached to certain behaviors to guide their orientation see Akers, If premarital abstinence is considered a more conservative practice, it may be appropriate to regard the practice of cohabitation to be less conservative, although some may consider premarital abstinence to be less relevant in our contemporary society. But norms and timing may shape life expectations as well. For example, in their ethnographic work, Edin and Kefalas described how low income mothers in poor neighborhoods put childbearing before marriage due to the high value placed on children and the fear of stigma from divorce.

Fear of ridicule, peer sanctions, and lack of understanding of the value of good education are among many reasons that the Black respondents in his study did not fare well in school. Based on the above literature, this study proposed several hypotheses to guide the analyses. The extent of sexual health and practice knowledge the respondents received from a parent or guardian is another parent-child factor that we controlled in our model.

Additionally, the respondents who had sex prior to age 16 were hypothesized to have a higher of sexual partners by the time they reached emerging adulthood. Lastly, this study hypothesized that growing up in a two-parent household and living with at least one parent were associated with a lower of lifetime sexual partners. To be included in the study, respondents had to physically reside in the county at the time that recruitment took place. The state of Michigan presents a compelling case of study because it constitutes the national median on several major social measures e.

While the total length of the study was about 4 years, only the baseline data collected between March and July when the respondents were between ages of 18 and 19 were utilized in this study. Due to the small of other racial groups, this study focuses only on White and Black respondents. Overall, the study sample comprised young women with valid responses.

Perceived peer norms measured the prevalence of negative peer norms. An interaction term was also constructed by multiplying the peer pressure and peer approval variable to gauge the influence of one contingent upon the other. Parental factors were represented by three variables. Specifically, parental approval examined the extent to which their parents would endorse the aforementioned behaviors.

To measure sexual attitudes, the respondents were asked to specify their agreement or disagreement on two statements related to premarital sex and nonmarital living arrangements. Additionally, this study also controlled for the age at which the respondents had their first sexual experience. Age 16 was used as the cut-off point because it is the legal age for youths to consent to sexual activity in the state of Michigan U.

While the educational attainment variable ified the extent of their educational attainment at the time of the data collection, their GPA was an indication of how they performed academically in high school. This study controlled for several sociodemographic variables in the analyses. Approximately Additionally, slightly less than half Further, The latter two variables served as proxies for the level of parental supervision and support the respondents received. Its coefficients were transformed into percentages that reflect the Woman seeking real sex Arnett Oklahoma changes in the of sexual partners followed by a unit change in the predictor variables.

Finally, inverse probability weighting procedure IPVan estimation procedure for minimizing data exclusion or statistical challenges due to nonresponse, was employed in this study. Other peer and parental factors had no statistically ificant influence. With respect to their personal sexual attitudes, the risk among respondents who upheld the perception that no sexual relations should be permitted before marriage was. Additionally, the risk among respondents who perceived cohabitation as acceptable was 1.

Further, consistent across the models, the risk among respondents who aspired to attain a college degree and beyond is between. Current educational achievement, on the other hand, was linked to higher incidence rate ratios see Models 1 and 2. When race was taken intothe risk among White respondents was. However, this association became statistically inificant when interaction terms related to attitudes and education were incorporated as covariates in Models 2 and 3 respectively. Finally, the risk among those raised in a two-parent household was.

Figure 1 indicates that among the respondents who did not endorse premarital abstinence, Black respondents have a higher of sexual partner, and endorsing premarital abstinence was associated with a greater decrease in the of sexual partners among White respondents than among their Black counterparts. Interaction effect of race and attitude toward premarital abstinence on of sexual partners. To address our research goal, we incorporated elements which have Woman seeking real sex Arnett Oklahoma found to be relevant to two developmental life stages i.

Nevertheless, controlling for other variables, parental approval, on the contrary, had an marginal association. As these young women venture into young adulthood and become more independent of their family of origin, we anticipated that the influence of peers would continue to be an integral part of their sexual decision making. Although we did not find any statistically ificant association between parent-youth sexual health communication and the of sexual partners, respondents who came from two parent-households reported a lower of sexual partners. Specifically, higher future educational aspirations and school GPA were associated with a lower of sexual partners; their current educational attainment, unexpectedly was associated with a higher of sexual partners.

We suspected that post-secondary educational settings may offer the respondents more opportunities in meeting new people.

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For example, in her literature review, Allison b noted the college hook-up culture among emerging adults who shy away from relationship commitment but want to experience sexual intimacy given that serious relationships may detract one from pursuing other career or educational goals. This is, however, not to state that respondents with higher level of educational attainment are more likely to engage in casual sex.

Unlike in the case of working young adults, college may offer a venue for young adults to meet someone more like them. With regards to racial classification, Black respondents reported a higher of sexual partners compared to Whites, a finding which aligns with other studies e. As such, in studying social inequalities among different racial groups, we recommend that future researchers exercise caution before drawing conclusions that result in broad generalization.

Understanding these risk and protective factors may help public health policy planners and health care professionals formulate a more effective ecologically based approach to mitigate sexual health risks for young women of different racial groups. Some limitations of the study must be noted. First, this study sample makes no claim of representativeness to the national sample.

Second, the cross-sectional study de precludes drawing conclusions about causality. Additionally, we also lack adequate measures of birth control and variables capturing the relationship context e. Nevertheless, our study has some empirical value and provides some preliminary findings that may have policy considerations and research implications.

Given that living in a two-parent household decreased the likelihood of acquiring more sexual partners, we recommend that health care professionals and social work clinicians help both parents better convey their message to their young adult children to improve communication quality.

Emphasis must be placed on the timing and breadth of the communication suitable for this developmental life stage, since young adults in emerging adulthood may have a different perception about the message they receive from their parents. Family-based intervention and guidance can also be extended to assist households with adolescents aging into early adulthood to maximize familial resources.

Because Black and White young women experience different social contexts for their sexual decision making, health promotion programs or health care intervention geared toward Woman seeking real sex Arnett Oklahoma the incidence of sexual health risk or other social repercussions related to dating must acknowledge the unique social needs for each individual.

Lastly, public health care employees who serve emerging adults may benefit from sexual health training to provide culturally sensitive and nonjudgmental care. Negative binomial regression analyses with of sexual partners as the dependent variable. Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Soc Work Health Care. Author manuscript; available in PMC Nov Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. University Ave. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Keywords: Education, emerging adults, family, peers, sexual attitudes, sexual partners. Peer factors Peers play a central role in shaping how young adults choose to express themselves sexually e. Educational aspirations and attainment Existing evidence suggested that high aspirations and attainment are among the most ificant predictors of future behavioral outcomes.

Racial differences in relevant social contexts Research efforts that have focused on racial differences suggest that Black and White adolescents may experience different sexual contexts. Peer variables Perceived peer norms measured the prevalence of negative peer norms. Parental factors Parental factors were represented by three variables.

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Young women’s sexual involvement in emerging adulthood